Perception,Process of perception
Perception is the activity of sensing,interpreting,and evaluating objects both physical and social.Perception is the set of unconscious processes we undergo to make sense of the stimuli and sensations we encounter.Oerception is the process of organizing and attempting to understand the sensory stimulation we receive ,select organize and interpret our sensations.Our perceptions are based on how we interpret all these different sensations, which are sensory impressions we get from the stimuli in the world around us.
Perception enables us to navigate the world and to make decisions about everything, from which T-shirt to wear or how fast to run away from a bear.
Process of Perception:
A sequence of steps that involves, sequentially: selection of stimuli in the environment, organization of that information, and interpretation of those stimuli.Individual differences are seen in perceptual process.
This process is typically unconscious and happens hundreds of thousands of times a day. An unconscious process is simply one that happens without awareness or intention. When you open your eyes, you do not need to tell your brain to interpret the light falling onto your retinas from the object in front of you as “computer” because this has happened unconsciously. When you step out into a chilly night, your brain does not need to be told “cold” because the stimuli trigger the processes and categories automatically.
Receptors are the specialized cells of the nervous system that are sensitive to stimuli.Presence of several receptors located in eyes,ears,nose ,skin,mouth,etc gives knowledge of sensory stimulation .When information reaches the receptors ,the response of these cells are called receptor process.
When you see your friend suddenly after a long time ,seeing her the receptors(rods and cones) of eye gets activated ,hearing her voice auditory receptor(basilar menbrane) gets activated,shaking hands with her activates the cutaneous receptors,the smell of her perfume arouses cilia of the olfactory receptor.
The receptors can be activated simultaneously ,but the perception is only to a particular receptor process.
Suppose one of your friend called you and at the same time your mobile rings which one is to be attended?You will consider the preference first and then attend the later.
In the second step of the perception process,it is also necessary for our brain to categorize and interpret what we are sensing.When we sense stimulus in present time,it stimulates several activities in the associative neurons of the cortex resulting in receiiving the stored engrams .This is called symbolic process.Our ability to interpret and give meaning to the object is next step called recognition.This received information are categorized and recognized with a particular identifying name.This process is called symbolic because they represent the objects ,situations or events of the past.
Mental images of different odors ,ideas ,signs symbols ,shapes ,impressive words ,memories ,languages ,concepts are used in perception as a substitute for an actual object.The mental thought or activity helps in a symbolic way to process selective response.The previous experiences can be recalled even if it ceases to be present.
You can easily remember the activity you were carrying when you heard the royal palace incident which killed most of the royal members .How do you make it possible mentally?It is the symbolic impressions doing the job for you.
c. Affective process:
Affective process reminds the emotions attached to a stimulus.While perceiving we do not only have the images of an object but also its impressions as pleasent-unpleasent,liked-disliked,interesting-uninteresting,love-hate,for or against or perhaps non of these.Affective process is the feeling ,the sentiments attached to an object or person.
Can you recall the most pleasant or unpleasant experience that happened in your life?Why do you call it pleasant or unpleasant ;because it is attached with the affective perception of the situation ?Affective process overlaps the recall of the past experience of receptor and symbolic functions.
It is related with situation .If situation is favourable ,individual takes it as a pleasure ,if unfavourable may be against it.It may be related with organic physical condition of the individual.
If a person is hungry the situation is pleasant but if the person is sick it may be highly unpleasant.
It also involves aesthetic experience e.g evaluation of good or bad,beautiful or ugly ,smooth or rough,melodious or hoarse,etc.
The interpretaion of the meaning of something that we have perceived is possible not only with receptor ,symbolic,affective process alone but also to their unified effort.Unification process states that all the processes of perception are needed to have a clear picture and understanding of what we perceive.
Cooking meal ,judgement that food is delicious or not,liked or unliked also depends upon past experience .In this way ,the processes of perception overlap upon the arousal of receptor,symbolic and affective processes altogether this is called unification process.