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Emerging Challenges Of Management

Emerging Challenges Of Management

Emerging Challenges Of Management Principle of Management

 
Managerial functions are keys to organizational success.Therefore several challenges confront managers today and these challenges mainly arising from the significant change in the outside world.Some of the major emerging issues or challenges that all managers face today are as follows:
 
Globalization:
Globalization means making the world not limited in a boundary ie;creation of boundaryless world.It is the free movement or free flow of factors of production all over the world and there must be no any hinderence and restriction.Management is no longer controlled by national borders.It means free trade in products and services ,offering a wide choice of goods to customer around the world.
 
The growth of regional free trade agreement and world trade organization (WTO) present new challenges and opportunities for managers.It creates extreme competition for markets and also for natural resources.Employment of people coming from across and national boundaries further complicates the management process Values symbols and beliefs of employees differ considerably and these affect the nature of supervisory relationships,decision making styles ,and overall management systems.The managers of every management should think globally and act locally.
 
Workforce diversity:
Workforce diversity means that organization are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender,ethnicity,race and other backgrounds.Therefore, management needs to deal with diversified workforce consisting of knowledge workers,bimodal workforce,work teams,virtual teams and contingent employees.
 
Dealing with diversity requires visionary leadership in managers.The managers will need to shift their approaches and philosophy to workforce management .They should recognize the difference among employees and respond to them in ways that they will ensure employees commitment .If diversity is managed positively then it increases creativity and innovations in organizations.
 
Ethics and social responsibility:
Ethics is the set of moral principles and rules guiding an individual’s behavior .It is the basis of determining right or wrong in a given situation .It is an individual perception and belief while taking a decision.Managing ethically is not easy.Conflicts will often arise .There is increasing concern about the role and state of ethics in business because of the belief that business ethics have declined in recent years .Managers are concerned because of the complexity of ethics in decision making.
 
Social responsibility includes being aware of society and toward its values and regulations .Modern organizations need to be involved in social concern .In recent years public attention has been focused on the issues of social responsibility of business.Society generally expects contribution to the quality of life and the society. Environment issues have become matters of universal concern.
 
Empowerment:
The role of differences between the manager and the workers have narrowed down considerably .Decision making is being pushed down to the operating level.Workers are now being given the freedom to make choices about schedules,procedures,and solving work-related problems.Earlier,managers are considerably further by allowing employees full control of their work.Self-managed work teams, where workers operate largely without bosses,have become the management technique today.Thus,the managers are engaged in empowering employees .They are putting employees in-charge of problems and prospects of their organization.This is the process of empowerment.Various methods of empowerment ranging from simple participation to self-managed work teams have now been practiced in organizations.
 
Technology:
Technological environment consists of innovation,techniques,and the organized knowledge or the ways of doing things .Technology includes any equipment,tools or operating methods that are designed to make work more efficient.The managers must grasp a proper understanding of these aspects of technological context.Technology management has now emerged as an important and crucial management activity in modern business firms to match the competitive market Managers have to cope with all these changes taking place in technology and their management.
 
Innovation and Change:
Organizations must pay attention to innovation and change.otherwise,they will go out of business.Product life span has been shortening everyday.Products need continuous improvement,upgradation,and modification.Success will go to those organizations that continually improve their product quality.They have to beat their competitors in the marketplace with a constant flow of innovative products and services .An organization’s employees are the vital forces for innovation and change.If they block innovation and change ,the organization will become a candidate for extinction.The challenge for managers is to stimulate employee creativity for innovation and change.
 
Quality and Productivity:
Management needs to cope with continuous improvement in product quality.The importance of quality ,and standards for acceptable quality has increased dramatically in recent years .There is interrelationship between quality and productivity.Quality is the excellence of the product,including its attractiveness,lack of defects,reliability,and long-term dependability.Productivity has also become a major issue for organization during recent years.Increase in productivity requires developing and applying techniques and strategies.Low productivity is a threat to competitiveness.
 
Knowledge Management:
Knowledge management is the process of capturing,developing,sharing and effectively using organizational knowledge.It refers to a multi-disciplined approach to achieving organizational objectives by making best use of knowledge.

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Why Go To University – Four Levels | Adventures In English

University

 

Why Go To University – Four Levels | Adventures In English

Literal Comprehension:
 
“Why Go to University” is an essay by Moti Nissani. This essay gives emphasis on the importance of higher education. Education is the third eye of human being. An uneducated person can see water in the river but an educated person can see the electricity on it. Education is the light of life. It removes darkness from mind and fills knowledge. In this essay, Nissani talks about the importance of university education.
 
A better educated people can get better job more easily than less educated person. He can earn more income and maintain good living standard. He can live happy and comfortable life. Not only that educated people are the manpower of the nation and they can make country also rich by utilizing the natural resources.
 
Education provides us knowledge and knowledge is power. An educated person is likely to resolve the difficulties and conflicts in a rational manner. Educated people are wise, tolerant, and they also realize their mistakes. Educated people take better care of their health. They are more likely to enjoy better health than tycoons. They know the disadvantages of smoking, fatness, tension, lack of exercise, imbalanced food, unhygienic atmosphere, over eating, stale food and air etc. they try to stay far from these health problems.
 
Educated people are also aware of the benefit of physical exercise. They well know the proverb’ sound mind in a sound body’. So they do regular exercise and try to keep them always feet and strong. One survey shows that educated men and women are valued and respected in the society. A man might be handsome, kind, strong, brave, hero etc. he would still be considered in some ways deficient. The lack of education damages his life. But the better educated person is the better he feels about himself.
 
Educated people are curious about new thing and new places. They are lover of knowledge and civilized and well cultured. They take knowledge; reward and they feel comfortable from their living. Going to University expands our social horizons. We meet new people, make new friends and share new experiences. Education also helps for friendship and personal growth. Education increases our personal freedom. Educated people are less dogmatic. They don’t hesitate to fight and die if anyone tries to grab their rights and freedom.
 
Educated people have also knowledge of the universe. Today modern people believe that the earth moves and the sun is still. Education and democracy are closely related. Democracy flourishes only in the educated society. It doesn’t exist if people are ignorant and selfish. So education is supremely Important and valuable.
 
Interpretation:
This essay may be trying to show the value of education. It shows that education is very important. The writer also says that University education is very necessary to live happy, comfortable and meaningful; life. It fulfills our desire for learning and quenches the thirst of knowledge. It also helps for career development and also for the development of citizens, society and country.
 
Critical thinking:
This essay is very much impressive because education is considered supremely valuable. However I am not agree with few ideas of the writer. Is only formal education important? Can’t we become educated through informal education? Do all the educated people respected as much as rich businessman and powerful politicians? So I don’t agree with the writer.
 
Assimilation:
This essay impressed me very much. Before reading this story, I don’t know the value of formal education and University degree. But this essay inspired me to study well to take university degree. Now, I have decided to become a scholar to have comfortable through learning.

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Shep’s Hobby | Four Levels | Adventures In English Vol I

SHEP’S  HOBBY                      

Author:James Heriot

 
 
 
 
 
 
LITERAL COMPREHENSION:
The narrator in the story used to visit Mr. Baile’s house as a veterinary doctor for the treatment of Mr. Baile’s cow.Mr. Bailes had a large dog ‘Shep’. It was always kept by the gate of his house. Shep had a strange habit of frightening the people whoever came to his house. He suddenly used to bark in a frightening tone whenever they would be close to him. The narrator in the story too had been terrified by the dog for so many times. Once the narrator enraged with the dog pulled it by its chain and threatened it. Since then, the dog never barked at the narrator. The narrator seeing the changed habit of the dog was pleased with the thought that the dog might have changed his habit out of his threat. Later, once the narrator was passing by the house of Mr. Bailes, a tinker was before him by the wall behind which Shep had hidden himself. All of a sudden, the dog barked terribly at the tinker and so he ran away throwing his pans and pots. The narrator seeing the dog frightening the tinker was quite happy. He was confirmed that the dog had not lost its natural habit.
 

INTERPRETATION:
This story might be trying to tell us that any animal has the right to make fun and that there is not much different between dogs and men so far as recreation is concerned. The story teaches some important facts about the behavior of animals. It presents the certain moral aspects as we find in other stories. It is impressive so far it talks about the natural quality and the character of the animals. It strongly speaks on the continuation of natural character of the animals and states that they should be allowed to enjoy it, lest their life and existence won’t be happy. It supports the right of animals and advocates that people be sympathetic and kind to them.

CRITICAL THINKING:
As we go through the story, we find it quite impressive and appreciative so far it imparts the facts about animals. But still the story seems to be misleading and unconvincing in some points.  This lovely animal story has some points which might be unacceptable.

  1. How could a postman cure the cow which a vet could not?
  2.  Has a dog’s sense of timing so perfect as to frighten the people?
  3.  Is the story convincing enough? Perhaps we have raised such questions because we have not absence dogs as closely as a vet.
ASSIMILATION:
This story has changed by attitudes to animals completely. Before I read this story, I would run away if a dog comes close to me. I would think that it had come to bite me. But now I think that it has come to play with me. Now I love a dog and want to make friend with it.

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The Library Card | Four Levels | Adventures In English Vol I

THE LIBRARY CARD
 
By :William Miller


 
 
 
Literal Comprehension:

                                                                                         
“The Library Card” is written by Richard Wright, a black writer in America. Once a negro boy was reading a newspaper “The American Mercury” on which he saw a white man called H.L. Mencken being abused by another white man. He got surprised since he used to think that only negros were hated, but not white man. The article was furious denunciation in which Mencken was called a fool. Therefore , he became curious to know more about Mencken and was highly inspired to read his books. However, the blacks are not allowed to go to library. They were deprived of the library cards. Fortunately, he was able to use the library cards of a white man in his office and read two books by H.K. Mencken. As a result, he found himself in a different world. He understand the reason why Mencken was hated by his own people. He had talked about the equality between whites and blacks. The man he reads the more he understand the reality. In this way the boy always went to the library and read the book more critically. After reading many books, he understood his boss and he realized that he had been missing a very important thing in life. Upto that time. Reading became like a drug to him. So, he wanted to became a writer he had to know so many things and people well. That’s why, he brought English grammars for learning English, but he found the English better from novels than grammar, after reading many novels realized the suffering of slaves, suppression and violent operation of cruel law by the white against the black. So, he didn’t like to live the life of a slave living in the south because of his education. As he was in the minority, he couldn’t fight against the white either. In this way, his education mad him different from others blacks. So, he couldn’t forget the pathetic situation of black easily. Therefore at the end having felt incompleteness in himself to become a writer, he became very sad. 
 

Interpretation:

The writer may be trying to tell us that education is supremely important ornament of life. The more ones reads the more knowledge one perceives about the vastness and mystery of the world. In this story a negro boy becomes curious to read more and more after reading a newspaper editorial in which Mencken is severely criticized. His thirst of learning increase. As a result, he starts reading a lot. Reading makes him conscious about the painful condition and suffering of the blacks and changes his attitude towards life and the world. In this way, his education makes him different from others. Consequently, he understand the discrimination, injustice and inequalities between the whites and blacks. 
 

Critical Thinking:

After reading this story we learnt that the white people behave Negro quite savagely. But we know that the USA is a highly democratic nation. In such nation, how can we believe that blacks are treated so savagely? Isn’t there compulsory education for all? How can a boy forge the letter if he is uneducated and if he is discriminated? Was the black’s freedom realty seized? So, we aren’t totally convinced with the ideas of the story.
 

Assimilation:

Before reading this story I used to think that English could be learnt by means of English grammars. But after reading it, I know that we can guess the meaning of a new word according to the context rather than using the dictionary frequently moreover, I understand that education is supremely valuable. So, I have determines to continue my education to her higher degree for making my life meaningful.

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Phaedo| Four Levels| Adventures In English Vol I


PHAEDO
 
Author: Plato

 


Literal Comprehension:

Phaedo is written by Plato. When Socrates was executed, Phaedo was with him. Pahedo describes the details about Socrates death. He says that Socrates was very wise and brave. He perfected to die speaking the truth of live telling a lie. He was accused of misleading the youth and causing them to hold free opinions. So, he was arrested by authority. But he wasn’t executed immediately since the sacred mission to Delos hadn’t been completed yet. So the execution was delayed until the arrival of the ship of Athens. When the ship came, the day of execution was fixed. One the of execution, many students his friends and relatives came to meet him into prison. That day had also been passed in the usual Philosophical discussion for a long time. After that he went into another room. After taking bath he looked fresh. Then the prison officer came with a bowl of poison and said that Socrates had to drink it. Making the tears in his eyes, he went away. He was offered poison. Even though, he didn’t changes his facial expression. Rather he command his student not to lose their hearts. Then he drank it calmly. He walked for some time. His friend started to weep and he scolded them. Finally he by down. At the end, he wished that a cock should be offered to healing god, Aselepius. In this way the bravest wisest and most upright man died.
 
Interpretation:
The story is trying to say us about the importance of life and death. In our death is inevitable. Everyone should die sooner or later. So, we should accept death for the sake of truth, justice and prosperity. Death for righteousness never becomes worthless. As in the story Socrates accepts the death calmly for the sake of righteousness. He thinks that dying bravely is more satisfactory than living cowardly. So, he accepts death for the sake of truth and humanity.
 
Critical Thinking :
Though the story talks about death for the truth and humanity but there are many ideas which are unacceptable. In this modern age, do we believe in existence of soul and life after death? Do the modern people follow such principles of Socrates? Was Athenian government to cruel that man couldn’t have the right to express the thoughts? 
 
Assimilation:

After reading this lesson I learnt a great moral lesson about the truth and justice. I must be bold to speak the truth. If anything is wrong. Moreover, I was coward and afraid of death. But after reading this story, I have decided to die bravely for the sake of humanity. So, I will always hold truth, Justice and righteousness.

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The Wretched Stone|Four Levels|Adventures In English Vol I

 

Chris-Van-AllsburgThe Wretched Stone|Four Levels|Adventures In English Vol I

Literal Comprehension:
After completing all its preparation a big cargo ship Rita Anne started her Voyage with fine environment. Every present crew were enjoying by reading books storytelling, etc. After four weeks they reached to an island which was very strange because there were no fruits in the plants, there was no sign of human life. There was bad smelling air and bitter water falling from fountains. They found a strange stone with shining one side that was giving light from there. They kept the stone in the ship and started their further journey. When crews were free they used to watch it. All sailors forgot their jobs and duties and rarely spoke each other. They always sat in front of the stone. They started to walk like animal, didn’t understand the language spoken by the captain. The captain made a secret plan to throw the stone in to the see. Soon a storm occurred where captain alone was controlling the ship. Other crews were busy in watching TV (Stone). Later the captain change them by playing music, reading books and telling stories. The ones who could read changed faster then who couldn’t later all were rescued by another ship.
 
Interpretation:
This metaphorical story might be telling many things. Here the stone, ape stands for modern non-creative people. According to the writer being crazy to TV. People are careless to their responsibilities and duties. Watching TV is non-productive and uncreative work. There can be other ways to get entertainment like reading, singing story telling etc. We must be dutiful and punctual to get success in our life. Again the story might also try to tell us that we give less focus to our other important works while watching TV. TV itself is the cause of change in our good manners and attitudes. The title “The Wretched Stone” indicates the stone that gives lot of tensions and problems. This means people get more problems than benefits in watching TV. As we are away from the TV, we can be more creative, mannered and real human beings.
 
Critical Thinking:
After reading this story I became so much disagree with the ideas given as the negative aspects of TV in total. Modern science and technological inventions have made our life facilitated and comfortable. Among them TV is one most useful tool. As it is given in this story TV is the not really so useless. We can know about the world, new inventions, knowledge skills and so much ideas using TV. We can world in front of TV set.

  •  How can any person become ape watching TV? 
  • Can we really become careless and duty-free watching TV?
  •  Can we reject the number of information and knowledge we get from TV? No doubt TV itself is not bad if we use it selectively and appropriately. There are many more advantages along with few disadvantages of using TV.
 
Assimilation:
The story influenced me a lot. When we see the misusages of TV in our daily life, we can see similar situation. School children become crazy to non-creative programs. They should be interested about study. Most of housewives normally watch TV and kill their important time without any creative work. No doubt, if we can’t use TV properly, we can be meaningless and non-creative like the apes. The metaphorical presentation of TV as a stone made me to be careful in watching TV to find whether it has destroyed me or given creativity.

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Advantages Of Computer| Computer Fundamentals

downloadAdvantages Of Computer

A computer is an electronic device system that accepts raw data as inputs, processes and manipulates them in digital form to give outputs (results) and store them for future use.Computers have made an impact in virtually all areas of our lives. They have changed the way things are done by increasing accuracy and speed. We no longer need to rely on manpower to execute repetitive and tedious work that can be automated by computers. They have also drastically brought down the cost of doing business. Today, computers are a staple in most disciplines including medicine, accounting, education, engineering and others.Some of the advantages of Computer are as follows:

  • Speed: When data, instructions, and information flow along electronic circuits in a computer, they travel at incredibly fast speeds. Many computers process billions or trillions of operations in a single second. Processing involves computing (e.g., adding, subtracting), sorting (e.g., alphabetizing), organizing, displaying images, recording audio, playing music, and showing a movie or video.
  • Reliability: The electronic components in modern computers are dependable and reliable because they rarely break or fail.
  • Consistency: Given the same input and processes, a computer will produce the same results consistently. A computing phrase  known as garbage in, garbage out  points out that the accuracy of a computer’s output depends on the accuracy of the input. For example, if you do not use the flash on a digital camera when indoors, the resulting pictures that are displayed on the computer screen may be unusable because they are too dark.
  • Storage: A computer can transfer data quickly from storage to memory, process it, and then store it again for future use. Many computers store enormous amounts of data and make this data available for processing anytime it is needed.
  • Communications: Most computers today can communicate with other computers, often wirelessly. Computers with this capability can share any of the four information processing cycle operations input, process, output, and storage with another computer or a user.

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